Debt-to-Income Ratio

The ratio, expressed as a percentage, which results when a borrower's monthly payment obligation on long term debts is divided by his or her gross monthly income. See housing expenses-to-income ratio.
 

Deed of Trust

In many states, this document is used in place of a mortgage to secure the payment of a note.
 

Default

Failure to meet legal obligations in a contract, specifically, failure to make the monthly payments on a mortgage.
 

Deferred Interest

When a mortgage is written with a monthly payment that is less than required to satisfy the note rate, the unpaid interest is deferred by adding it to the loan balance. See negative amortization.
 

Delinquency

Failure to make payments on time. This can lead to foreclosure.
 

Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)

An independent agency of the federal government which guarantees long term, low-or-no-down payment mortgages to eligible veterans.
 

Discount Point

See point
 

Down Payment

Money paid to make up the difference between the purchase price and the mortgage amount.
 

Due-on-Sale-Clause

A provision in a mortgage or deed of trust that allows the lender to demand immediate payment of the balance of the mortgage if the mortgage holder sells the home.
 

Earnest Money

Money given by a buyer to a seller as part of the purchase price to bind a transaction or assure payment.
 

Entitlement

The VA home loan benefit is called an entitlement (i.e. entitlement for a VA guaranteed home loan). This is also known as eligibility.
 

Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA)

A federal law that requires lenders and other creditors to make credit equally available without discrimination based on race, color, religion, national origin, age, sex, marital status or receipt of income from public assistance programs.
 

Equity

The difference between the fair market value and current indebtedness, also referred to as the owner's interest. The value an owner has in real estate over and above the obligation against the property.
 

Escrow

An account held by the lender into which the home buyer pays money for tax or insurance payments. Also earnest deposits held pending loan closing.
 

Escrow Disbursements

The use of escrow funds to pay real estate taxes, hazard insurance, mortgage insurance, and other property expenses as they become due.
 

Escrow Payment

The part of a mortgagor’s monthly payment that is held by the servicer to pay for taxes, hazard insurance, mortgage insurance, lease payments, and other items as they become due.
 

Fannie Mae

See Federal National Mortgage Association.
 

Farmers Home Administration (FmHA)

Provides financing to farmers and other qualified borrowers who are unable to obtain loans elsewhere.
 

Federal Home Loan Bank Board (FHLBB)

The former name for the regulatory and supervisory agency for federally chartered savings institutions. The agency is now called the Office of Thrift Supervision
 

Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation(FHLMC) also called "Freddie Mac"

A government sponsored entity that purchases conventional mortgage from insured depository institutions and HUD-approved mortgage bankers.
 

Federal Housing Administration (FHA)

A division of the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Its main activity is the insuring of residential mortgage loans made by private lenders. FHA also sets standards for underwriting mortgages.
 

Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA) also know as "Fannie Mae"

A government sponsored entity that purchases and sells conventional residential mortgages as well as those insured by FHA or guaranteed by VA.
 

FHA Loan

A loan insured by the Federal Housing Administration open to all qualified home purchasers. While there are limits to the size of FHA loans, they are generous enough to handle moderately priced homes almost anywhere in the country.
 

FHA Mortgage Insurance

Requires a fee (up to 2.25 percent of the loan amount) paid at closing to insure the loan with FHA. In addition, FHA mortgage insurance requires an annual fee of up to 0.5 percent of the current loan amount, paid in monthly installments. The lower the down payment, the more years the fee must be paid.
 

FHLMC

The Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation provides a secondary market for savings and loans by purchasing their conventional loans. Also known as "Freddie Mac."
 

Firm Commitment

A promise by FHA to insure a mortgage loan for a specified property and borrower. A promise from a lender to make a mortgage loan.
 

First Mortgage

The primary lien against a property.">
 

Fixed Installment

The monthly payment due on a mortgage loan including payment of both principal and interest.
 

Fixed Rate Mortgage

The mortgage interest rate will remain the same on these mortgages throughout the term of the mortgage for the original borrower.
 

Fully Amortized ARM

An adjustable rate mortgage (ARM) with a monthly payment that is sufficient to amortize the remaining balance, at the interest accrual rate, over the amortization term.
 

FNMA

The Federal National Mortgage Association is a secondary mortgage institution. FNMA buys VA, FHA, and conventional mortgages from primary lenders. Also known as "Fannie Mae."
 

Foreclosure

A legal process by which the lender or the seller forces a sale of a mortgaged property because the borrower has not met the terms of the mortgage. Also known as a repossession of property.
 

Freddie Mac

See Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation

 

Ginnie Mae

See Government National Mortgage Association.

 

Government National Mortgage Association (GNMA)

Also known as "Ginnie Mae." Provides sources of funds for residential mortgages, insured or guaranteed by FHA or VA.
 

Graduated Payment Mortgage (GPM)

A type of flexible payment mortgage where the payments increase for a specified period of time and then level off. This type of mortgage has negative amortization built into it.
 

Growing Equity Mortgage (GEM)

A fixed rate mortgage that provides scheduled payment increases over an established period of time. The increased amount of the monthly payment is applied directly toward reducing the remaining balance of the mortgage.
 

Guaranty

A promise by one party to pay a debt or perform an obligation contracted by another if the original party fails to pay or perform according to a contract.
 

Guarantee Mortgage

A mortgage that is guaranteed by a third party.
 

Hazard Insurance

A form of insurance in which the insurance company protects the insured from specified losses, such as fire, windstorm and the like.
 

Housing Expenses-to-Income Ratio

The ratio, expressed as a percentage, which results when a borrower's housing expenses are divided by his/her gross monthly income. See debt-to-income ratio.
 

HUD-1 Statement

A document that provides an itemized listing of the funds that are payable at closing. Items that appear on the statement include real estate commissions, loan fees, points and initial escrow amounts. Each item on the statement is represented by a separate number within a standardized numbering system. The totals at the bottom of the HUD-1 statement define the seller's net proceeds and the buyer's net payment at closing.
 

Impound

The portion of a borrower's monthly payments held by the lender or servicer to pay for taxes, hazard insurance, mortgage insurance, lease payments, and other items as they become due. Also known as reserves.
 

Index

A published interest rate against which lenders measure the difference between the current interest rate on an adjustable rate mortgage and that earned by other investments (such as one, three, and five year U.S. Treasury security yields, the monthly average interest rate on loans closed by savings and loan institutions, and the monthly average costs-of-funds incurred by savings and loans), which is then used to adjust the interest rate on an adjustable mortgage up or down.
 

Indexed Rate

The sum of the published index plus the margin. For example if the index is 4% and the margin is 2.75%, the indexed rate would be 6.75%. Often, lenders charge less than the indexed rate the first year of an adjustable rate mortgage.
 

Initial Interest Rate

This refers to the original interest rate of the mortgage at the time of closing. This rate changes for an adjustable rate mortgage (ARM). It's also known as "start rate" or "teaser."
 

Installment

The regular periodic payment that a borrower agrees to make to a lender.
 

Insured Mortgage

A mortgage that is protected by the Federal Housing Administration (FHA) or by private mortgage insurance (MI).
 

Interest

The fee charged for borrowing money.
 

Interest Accrual Rate

The percentage rate at which interest accrues on the mortgage. In most cases, it is also the rate used to calculate the monthly payments.
 

Interest Rate Buydown Plan

An arrangement that allows the property seller to deposit money to an account. That money is then released each month to reduce the mortgagor's monthly payments during the early years of a mortgage.
 

Interest Rate Ceiling

For an adjustable rate mortgage (ARM), the maximum interest rate, as specified in the mortgage note.
 

Interest Rate Floor

For an adjustable rate mortgage (ARM), the minimum interest rate, as specified in the mortgage note.
 

Interim Financing

A construction loan made during completion of a building or a project. A permanent loan usually replaces this loan after completion.
 

Investor

A money source for a lender.
 

Jumbo Loan

A loan which is larger than the limits set by the Federal National Mortgage Association and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation. Because jumbo loans cannot be funded by these two agencies, they usually carry a higher interest rate.

 

Late Charge

The penalty a borrower must pay when a payment is made a stated number of days after the due date.

 

Lease-Purchase Mortgage Loan

An alternative financing option that allows low and moderate income home buyers to lease a home with an option to buy. Each month's rent payment consists of principal, interest, taxes and insurance (PITI) payments on the first mortgage plus an extra amount that accumulates in a savings account for a down payment.
 

Liabilities

A person's financial obligations. Liabilities include long term and short term debt.
 

Lien

A claim upon a piece of property for the payment or satisfaction of a debt or obligation.
 

Lifetime Payment Cap

For an adjustable rate mortgage (ARM), a limit on the amount that payments can increase or decrease over the life of the mortgage.
 

Lifetime Rate Cap

For an adjustable rate mortgage (ARM), a limit on the amount that the interest rate can increase or decrease over the life of the loan. See cap.
 

Loan

A sum of borrowed money (principal) that is generally repaid with interest.
 

Loan to Value Ratio

The relationship between the amount of the mortgage loan and the appraised value of the property expressed as a percentage.
 

Lock

A lender's guarantee that the mortgage rate quoted will be good for a specific number of days from the day of application.

 

Margin

The amount a lender adds to the index on an adjustable rate mortgage to establish the adjusted interest rate.
 

Market Value

The highest price that a buyer would pay and the lowest price a seller would accept on a property. Market value may be different from the price a property could actually be sold for at a given time.

 

Maturity

The date on which the principal balance of a loan becomes due and payable.
 

MIP (Mortgage Insurance Premium)

Insurance from FHA to the lender against incurring a loss on account of the borrower's default.
 

Monthly Fixed Installment

The portion of the total monthly payment that is applied toward principal and interest. When a mortgage negatively amortizes, the monthly fixed installment does not include any amount for principal reduction and doesn't cover all of the interest. The loan balance therefore increases instead of decreasing.
 

Mortgage

A legal document that pledges a property to the lender as security for payment of a debt.
 

Mortgage Banker

A company that originates mortgages for resale in the secondary mortgage market.
 

Mortgage Broker

An individual or company that charges a service fee to bring borrowers and lenders together for the purpose of loan origination.
 

Mortgagee

The lender.
 

Mortgage Insurance

Money paid to insure the mortgage when the down payment is less than 20 percent. See private mortgage insurance, FHA mortgage insurance.
 

Mortgage Life Insurance

A type of term life insurance. In the event that the borrower dies while the policy is in force, the mortgage debt is automatically paid by insurance proceeds.
 

Mortgagor

The borrower or homeowner.
 

Negative Amortization

When your monthly payments are not large enough to pay all the interest due on the loan. This unpaid interest is added to the unpaid balance of the loan. The home buyer ends up owing more than the original amount of the loan.
 

Net Effective Income

The borrower's gross income minus federal income tax.
 

Non Assumption Clause

A statement in a mortgage contract forbidding the assumption of the mortgage without the prior approval of the lender.
 

Note

A legal document that obligates a borrower to repay a mortgage loan at a stated interest rate during a specified period of time.
 

Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS)

The regulatory and supervisory agency for federally chartered savings institutions. Formally known as Federal Home Loan Bank Board
 

One Year Adjustable Rate Mortgage

Mortgage where the annual rate changes yearly. The rate is usually based on movements of a published index plus a specified margin, chosen by the lender.
 

Origination Fee

The fee charged by a lender to prepare loan documents, make credit checks, inspect and sometimes appraise a property; usually computed as a percentage of the face value of the loan.
 

Owner Financing

A property purchase transaction in which the party selling the property provides all or part of the financing.
 

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